REVISTA DE PSICOLOGIA -GEPU-
ISSN 2145-6569
IBSN 2145-6569-0-7

   
 
  PARENTING STYLES INTERVENTION IN PARENTS WITH CHILDREN IN ELEMENTARY EDUCATION. SUMMARY

PARENTING STYLES INTERVENTION IN PARENTS WITH CHILDREN IN ELEMENTARY EDUCATION. SUMMARY
    
            
 
 

Christian Alberto Mendoza-Nápoles & Priscila Montañez Alvarado

  

 

Universidad  Autónoma de ciudad Juárez / México

 


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Christian Alberto Mendoza-Nápoles, Priscila Montañez Alvarado: Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez. Contact: christian_amn@hotmail.com  
  
Recibido: 6 de Agosto de 2020   
Aprobado: 30 de Diciembre de 2020
 
Referencia Recomendada: Mendoza-Napoles, C. &, Montañez-Alvarado, P. (2020). Parenting styles intervention in parents with children in elementary education summary. Revista de Psicología GEPU, 11 (2), 73- 85.
 
 
Resumen: Se realizó un cuasiexperimento con pre test y post test, con el objetivo de intervenir en la crianza que los progenitores brindan a sus hijos e hijas, mediante la psicoterapia racional emotiva y psicoeducación; trabajando las variables de estrés parental, ansiedad parental, el estilo de crianza, las cuales influyen en la agresividad y la ansiedad los menores. La muestra fue tomada de tres escuelas primaras de ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua. México. Se encontraron cambios estadísticamente significativos tanto en la ansiedad de los progenitores del grupo experimental; como en el post test en el grupo control de los menores en las variables de punitividad de la mamá, la aceptación percibida del papá por los menores, y la orientación al logro percibida del papá por parte de los menores. Se discuten los resultados en función de complementariedades y discrepancias con la teoría. 

Palabras clave: Crianza, estilo democrático, estilo autoritario, intervención psicoeducativa, psicoterapia racional emotiva.

Abstract: A quasi-experiment was developed with pre test and post test, with the objective of intervening in parenting. The intervention was realized through rational emotive psychotherapy and psychoeducation focused in parenting; the variables of this study were parental stress, parental anxiety, parenting style, aggressiveness of children and anxiety of minors. The sample was taken from three elementary schools in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua. Mexico. Statistically significant change of small effect was found in the anxiety of the parents of the experimental group. Likewise, statistically significant changes were found in the post test in the control group of the minors in the variables of authority of the mother, the perceived acceptance of the father by the minors, and the orientation to the perceived achievement of the father by the children. The results are discussed in terms of complementarities and discrepancies with the framework.
 

Key Words: Parenting, style, psychoeducational intervention, emotive rational psychotherapy anti-authoritarian democratic.
 
Introduction  

It has found that children who have aggressive behaviors have less ability to interact with their peers and have a low school performance (French, 1988;) Ladd and Burgess, 1999). When coercive patterns arise in early ages, they can be taken as predictors of violent behavior in adolescence (Patterson, Reid and Dishion, 2002), problems of vandalism, addictions and dropout school; the importance of aggression lies in that it is continuous, and can cause disorders in the individual (Wilson and Hernstein, 1985).  
 
However, the family in which the children lives is the one who has the responsibility to make functional or dysfunctional behaviors that occur in minors; since contemporary approaches have recognized that the family is responsible for promoting the personal and social development of their sons and daughters through their parenting style, it was found that parenting styles have a broad impact in the development of behavioral skills aspects of personality, the way of social interaction, the level of success and failure in school performance in children (Jimenez and Guevara, 2008). A key factor is the role that has the family to facilitate the development of prosocial behaviors, emotional self-regulation and the prevention of mental health problems in childhood like depression, aggressiveness, low self-esteem and anxiety (Crow, 2010).  
 
However, to understand the dynamics of parenting styles, is not only suffice to analyze the style of parenting; it is important to analyze also other variables surrounding the fathers, mothers, tutors, sons and daughters (Magaz, Chorot, Sandin, Santed, and brave, 2011).  

Justification 

Given the importance of improving the parenting style to have functional people in the society, it was decided to carry out an intervention in parenting in elementary school. Different interventions have been made in regards to parenting; in which results have been achieved, likewise interventions related to stress: in an investigation that was developed Mexico, in the city of Guadalajara in order to modify severe disciplinary practice, participated 41 mothers and 19 parents with children between three and five years old. The sample was divided into experimental group and control group. The results showed that the stress in the interaction and problem behaviors were predictive variables of disciplinary practices. After the intervention was found a significant change of disciplinary practices in the experimental group, they found that the courage and parental aggression is predictor of disciplinary practices (Solis-camara, Medina, and Diaz, 2015). 
 
In other research which measured the effect of treatment cognitive behavior in children, combined with parent training, conducted in public schools in poor areas of Mexico City; it was measured the stress of parents after the intervention, and it was not found parental stress. (Hernandez and Fajardo, 2008). In the same way the previous authors measured the effect of cognitive-behavior treatment in children, combined with parent training; and after the intervention to parents and children were reached in a normal state aggressiveness. 
 
Likewise, the anxiety has been a relevant variable in breeding. In study was found significant correlations between the anxiety of parents and internalized problems of children, with an ineffective and severe discipline and negative beliefs of parents (Laskey and Cartwright, 2009). 
 
Regarding children, the anxiety is related to different factors, it was studied children with not anxiety disorders and anxiety disorders. Analyses of variance indicated that anxiety disorders were significantly high in the temperamental emotional characteristics and shyness in the group with anxiety disorders. The results indicate that the style of parenting were not moderating the association between child temperament and anxiety in this study. (Lindhout, Markus, Hoogendiik, and Boer, 2009). In the same way in other study was found that parental psychopathology, attachment avoidance and anxiety of the mother were associated with the anxiety of minors (Esbjorn et al., 2013) and no involvement of mothers has been associated with levels high anxiety in children (blessed et al., 2015).  
 
In the current study, the intervention was carried out in fathers and mothers of families, as it has been exposed, there are variables that have an impact on minors, which it improves the well-being of their children. In children there was not intervention, only the variables were measured before and after the intervention in the parents.

General objective 

Impart and intervention that significantly improve the parenting styles. Working variables of this study were parental stress, parental anxiety, parenting style, which influence the aggressiveness and anxiety in children.
 
Specific objectives     
    
Apply a psychometric battery in minors and parents before and after the intervention, to measure the parenting, anxiety, stress, aggressiveness and to describe the characteristics of the sample. 
 
Apply the rational emotive therapy and psychoeducation focused on parenting, to improve psychological well-being and parents rearing patterns. 
 
Perform the analysis of the data using a related samples student's t, to know the effect of the intervention on parents and children.

Theoretical support 

Parental stress 

It refers to the importance or commitment to the parental role; which is defined as the set of beliefs and expectations which serve as mediators or moderators between the stressors that are presented in parentsAbidin, 1992).
 
Anxiety 

Anxiety has been defined in two ways, as a state, which refers to how feels the person at the time of answering the test, and like a trait anxiety, which refers to how the person feels normally. In this intervention it was only use the anxiety trait scale (Spielberger, Martinez-urrutia, González-Reigosa, birthday, and Diaz-guerrero, 1976). 
 
Parenting style 

For this variable were measured two parenting styles: authoritarian parenting style which is characterized that the parents are punitive, rigid with their children. And the democratic style that is characterized by parents who are firm, who establish boundaries, goals, and resort to reasoning and further independence (Baumrind, 1971). 

Perception of the behavior of the father 

Perception of the children of conduct issued by the father towards him (Andrade, 1984). 
 
Perception of the behavior of the mother 
Andrade defined as the perception that the children of conduct issued by the mother to them.  
 
Anxiety 

Unpleasant feelings of tension and apprehension, perceived in a conscious way, as activation to excitation associated with the autonomous system (Spielberger, 1983). 
 
Aggressiveness 

Frequency of aggressive behavior autonotified in school (Orpinas, and Frankowski, 2001).

Method of study  

Characteristics of the group in which the intervention was conducted 
 
The group in which the intervention will be imparted is composed of parents, sons and daughters. It is a group of primary type since the relationship takes place face to face, the contact is direct and emotional relationship. At the same time, it is a genetic group, because families are a permanent group that continues on the same site and continue the same functions, whereby members can change. And finally it is a group focused on the development of the child where he is lead to a good relationship in the Group (González, Monroy and Kupferma, 1978).  
 
Unit of study 

Mothers, fathers, and children in elementary school level. 
 
Design and plan of the intervention 

We invited the fathers and mothers through flyers and ads that were placed within the primary two weeks prior to the intervention. The intervention in the parents consisted of six sessions: In the first session it was applied psychometrics and some integrative dynamics related to exercise of introspection; in the second session the irrational thoughts in parenting were worked, at the third session irrational thinking and assertiveness was worked, as well as parenting styles; worked with psycho-education at the fourth session, in the fifth it was applied the progressive relaxation and school performance for children, at the sixth session parents worked with relaxation techniques; the post test was applied at the seventh session.  
 
The intervention was conducted in weekly sessions in the first intervention group, in the second intervention group performed sessions twice per week. Each session lasted for two hours. Instruments were applied before the intervention and post-intervention parents and children from the fourth, fifth and sixth years. Only the psychometric were applied in the age of the mentioned degrees, because tests are validated for this specific population. The psychometric applied before and after the intervention in the experimental group and the group control, for this latter group offered a discussion of parenting styles after applying the post test, as well as information to groups are left to them experimental and control group over a center of psychological assistance, for those who would like to receive specialized care. Were used in two experimental groups by the possible attrition. The type of study was a cuasi-experiment, with statistical analysis of test samples related t.

Theoretical bases of the intervention
  
Rational-emotive psychotherapy 

Anxiety has a biological factor that consists of an innate tendency to have desires, make choices that lead to the person to be to make them the environment and the people around us; persons that are linked currently, and that the individual has been linked, you can change beyond certain limits. Then the human being has to face external factors that cannot be controlled, and cannot control. The way in how a person perceive a situation is what determines the way in which the individual will feel when does not occur as expected; which is called irrational thinking, when the leaves are unduly affected by a situation (Ellis, 2001). It was use rational-emotive therapy in this study because there are evidence that working with the cognition of parents give relevant results in parenting (Hernandez and Fajardo, 2008). 
 
Progressive relaxation 

The progressive relaxation of Jacobson has its origins in the studies of neurophysiology of the muscular system by this same author. Progressive relaxation aims to relax the patient who is tense. It focuses on a reduction in the excessive brain-neuro-muscular performance, relaxing peripherally to the body to relax the bark, hence its use for the implementation of dialogues from the presented approaches (Durand, 2000).  
 
Durand refers to that breathing exercises have proven to be effective in reducing anxiety, depression, irritability, muscle tension and fatigue, all of the above is given for having a good oxygenation in the brain. When the individual is born, this breathing diaphragmatically, (this muscle helps keep a proper breath) but as the human being is growing is going away from this form of diaphragmatically breathing. 

Psychoeducation  
 
Workshop for parents aims to provide parents with the necessary skills to provide the relevant parental styles to their sons and daughters, since the basis of the training and education of children is based on the family, this has been since ancient times, training and education begins at home (Foundation for the study, prevention and assistance to drug addiction, 2002).   
 
Hypothesis     
   
Alternative hypothesis 
 
Intervention impact significantly on parenting that parents give to their sons and daughters in the variables of parental stress, anxiety, parenting style and children in aggression and anxiety.

Null hypothesis
 
Intervention does not impact significantly on parenting that parents give to their sons and daughters in the variables of parental stress, anxiety, parenting style and children in aggression and anxiety. 
 
Instruments to measure variables in the parent 

Parental stress  

The index scale of parental stress of Abidin (1990) to measure the degree of stress in parents, which is composed of 36 reagents with three subscales, and contains five response options applied. Account with a Cronbach alpha of. 90. It has been validated in different samples of different cultures and languages. For the Hispanic population were the scales of: characteristics of parents, children and parent-child interaction. It could be apply to parents of children from one month of age up to 12 years of age.  
 
Anxiety
  
The instrument to measure the anxiety is the IDARE, which is the version to the Spanish of the State-Trait ansity inventory (STAI) of Spielberger, et al., (1976), in which two dimensions of anxiety; as trait anxiety and anxiety as a State are measured. It can be used in normal adult subjects in high school students, students of Bachelor, neuropsychiatric, medical and surgical patients. The instrument consists of a total of forty expressions that people use to describe. The participant selects one of four categories, to answer each item. To qualify the instrument adds the score marked by the individual for each of the two states of anxiety. The level of anxiety described as follows according to the scores obtained on each of the scales: low (< 30), medium (30-44) and high (> 45).  
 
Parenting style  

parenting (Parenting Practices Questionnarie) questionnaire, developed by Robinson et al. (1995. the questionnaire used the analytical and theoretical bases of Baumrind (1971) parenting styles. The questionnaire consists of 62 questions, derived from a questionnaire of 133 questions applied to 1,251 parents with children in preschool and primary age. Robinson et al. reported significant Cronbach Alpha for the scales used, being of .91 for 27 related to the authoritative scale items, .86 for 20 questions of the authoritarian scale, and.75 for the 15 questions permissive scale. The internal consistency demonstrated that the questionnaire is reliable. The questionnaire used in this study was translated instrument created by Robinson et al. by Gaxiola et at al., (2006), which was validated by a confirmatory analysis in a small sample of 60 mothers in the state of Sonora. Also, underwent a question open to parents to know their styles of parenting, which was: for you, how it must be parenting? Indicated les that the response could be according to all aspects that they considered.
  
Instruments to measure variables in children
 
Parenting style 

Applied the questionnaire of perception of the behaviors of the father developed by Andrade (1984). The questionnaire consists of 27 reagents with response options; to qualify it adds the value given to each item is divided by the total number of items from each subscale. It is interpreted: highest score, the perception largely associated with father behaviors identified in the subscales. The scales are affection factor to = 0.88, acceptance factor to = 0.87, factor authority to = 0.73 and factor the achievement-oriented to = 0.75; which explained the 44.6% of the total variance. 
 
The questionnaire was applied to 302 children, of whom 190 were girls (62.9%) and 112 were children (37.1%), with ages ranging from 10 to 15 years (average age of 11.3 years). It was applied in children who were studying the sixth grade in schools in the Federal District. 142 children studying in private schools (47.0%) and 160 in public schools (53.0%). All the children lived with two parents. 
 
Applied also the perception of Andrade's mother behavior questionnaire. It is interpreted: highest score, a perception largely associated with father behaviors identified in the subscales. The scales are affection factor to = 0.85 and factor authority to = 0.80; which explained the 39.2% of the total variance.
 
This questionnaire was previously applied to 302 children, of whom 190 were girls (62.9%) and 112 were children (37.1%), with ages ranging from 10 to 15 years (average age of 11.3 years). It was children who were studying the sixth grade in schools in the Federal District. 142 children studying in private schools (47.0%) and 160 in public schools (53.0%). All the children lived with two parents. 
 
Aggressiveness 

Aggression scale was developed to measure the average frequency of self-reported aggressive behavior in children from schools. The scale was created from contributions from students and teachers about behaviors more prevalent in children. The scale consists of 11 items. Two of those items measure feelings of anger, so some researchers have excluded them from scale. However, those 11 items in multiple studies have shown a high internal consistency. The format of the responses is as follows: 0 = 0 times 1 = 1 time, 2 = 2 times 3 = 3 x, 4 = 4 times, 5 = 5 times and 6 = 6 times or more. Scores are cumulative and the scale is from 0 to 66 points. High values indicate an increased frequency of aggressive behavior. The internal consistency of scores, according to the alpha coefficient measurements of Cronbach, was 0.87 and 0.88, respectively. The internal consistency scores not vary on the basis of sex or race. The scale can be calculated if at least 8 questions have been answered (Orpinas and Frankowski, 2001).
 
Anxiety

Manifest anxiety scale was used to measure the anxiety of children in children (CMAS-R), which has been very popular as a clinical tool for research, which were written 100 articles in 20 years said the usefulness of the instrument. Consists of 37 reagents, to measure the level and nature of anxiety in children and adolescents aged 6 to 19 years of age. Each item is answered by Yes or a no. The instrument measures the physiological anxiety, restlessness/hypersensitivity, social concerns, concentration and lie. 

Results 

In the pre test came 9 mothers in the first experimental group, and 31 parents in the second experimental group, control group included eight mothers. Finally, in the post test groups were formed follows:  
 
The experimental group of parents was composed of 27 participants, 26 women and a man, with a median age of 37 years, 8 people were middle, high school 12, six with Bachelor's degree and a master's degree. 24 people considered themselves in a socio-economic status medium and 3 on bass. 14 nuclear families, four single-parent, four reconstituted, and five of extended family. As for minors were 25 participants; 17 men and eight women. With an average age of nine years, in which there were nine children of fourth year, 11 for fifth and five sixth.
The control of the parents group consisted of five people, all women. With an average age of 41 years of age, three persons had elementary school, a middle school and a master's degree. Two people were considered in the low socio-economic status and three in the middle. Three belonged to the nuclear family, one to the extensive and the reconstituted. Participants included five children, a man and four women, with average age of nine years, three children belonged to fourth grade, one fifth and one sixth. 
 
According to the results of the statistical analysis of the test t student, a statistically significant result was obtained between the before and after the intervention on the anxiety of the intervention of the parents group variable, since P =. 007, the effect on this variable was small; cohen d =. 19. They were not obtained statistically significant results in the other variables that were measured, since the level of significance was greater than. 05. See table 1.
 
Were not obtained statistically significant results in children after parental intervention, since the results of P were older. 05. see table 2. 
 
Statistically significant results in the group control before and after the intervention in the experimental group were not obtained. See table 3. 
 
We obtained statistically significant results after intervention in the experimental group, control group of minors, in the variables of mother authority, P =. 000, acceptance, perceived by the Pope, p =.027 and achievement-oriented, p =. 042 see table 4. 
 
The results of the open question: how is of raising children?, were noted by the 48 parents who participated in the measurement of the pre test in the experimental group and the control group. See table 5. 

Discussion 

Both the control group and the experimental group of parents, not presented problems of parental stress, anxiety, or the inappropriate use of parenting style, all participants used democratic style of parenting. Only some participants met with parental stress, anxiety and with the use of the authoritarian style above the average according to the instrument used to measure the aging parents. Therefore, it can be concluded that the people who decided to go to the intervention were people with few problems in the variables that were measured; probably one of the reasons why only there was change in the anxiety in the experimental group of parents, and also therefore, there was no change after intervention in the variables that were measured in children, also due to the lack of time and the attrition was not possible to measure outcomes of intervention in a longitudinal way. Other limitations were that by the characteristics of the intervention and little response from the parents to come to the interventions, the sample had to be small and not probabilistic. To decrease the anxiety of the participants in the experimental group, you can speak of relationship of the effectiveness of the rational-emotive psychotherapy and the decrease of anxiety (Ellis, 2001). However; to give explanations of cause and effect of the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic approach should be an experiment.  
 
In the control group of parents statistically significant, no differences were found as expected. However, in the age of the group control were found statistically significant differences in the post test variables: authority of the mother, acceptance, perceived by the Pope, and achievement-oriented. Which means that the perception of children as to the authority of the mother increase, perceived acceptance of the Pope by children declined, as the orientation by the father towards children decreased. This can be complemented with consequences proposed Baumrind (1971) which may occur in children feeling rejected and punished, consequences affecting long term social level, among which are the low ability to interact among peers, and have poor school performance (French, 1988;) Ladd and Burgess, 1999). Also, that the child feels rejected and punished can make arise coercive patterns, which can be taken as predictors of conduct violent in adolescence (Patterson, Reid and Dishion, 2002). However, in this study coercive patterns not found in children in the control group, only rejection and the orientation to achievement of the father and the authority in the mother. Similarly, not found that mothers in the control group used more widely the authoritarian style in the post test. So you would need to conduct another investigation to learn why the theory disagreed in this study, in that there are no associations of the variables of the parents, that may be influencing the results of the post test in children. The test that measured the aging in children, specifically measures perception, therefore, as it is important that parents have with their sons and daughters effective communication, since how he found in this study do not necessarily parents need to be authoritarian, so that children feel that they are being punished or rejected (Jimenez and Guevara, 2008). It would also be important in future to do research to analyze other variables surrounding the fathers, mothers, tutors, sons and daughters, which may be influencing parenting (Magaz, Chorot, Sandin, et al., 2011), in order to cause relationships to reach effect on breeding.  
 
Finally recommended more research to know that mean the categories who reported in question for parents: how it should be parenting? from this you could create instruments that measure the breeding. It should be noted that several of the categories that the parents gave their replies are related in the democratic parenting style (Baumrind, 1971). Among them is love as first, followed by the respect, discipline, security, teaching values and to express themselves. 

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